Nepalese culture traditions of different castes
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The rugged topography has created numerous ecological niches to which different ethnic groups have adapted. Although trade has nepalese culture traditions of different castes distinct ethnic groups into contact, the geography has created diversity in language and subsistence practices.
The result is a country with over thirty-six ethnic groups and over fifty languages. The hraditions in was just over Although infant mortality rates are extremely high, fertility rates are higher. High birth rates in rural areas have led to land shortages, forcing immigration to the Terai, where farmland is more plentiful, and to urban areas, where jobs are available. Migration into cities has led to over-crowding and pollution. The Nepalese culture traditions of different castes Valley has a population of approximatelyAfter conquering much of the territory that constitutes modern Nepal, King Prithvi Narayan Nepalese culture traditions of different castes — established Gorkhali Nepali as the national language.
Nepali is nepalese culture traditions of different castes Indo-European language derived from Sanskrit with which it shares and most residents speak at least some Nepali, which is the medium of government, education, and most radio and television broadcasts. For many people Nepali is secondary to the language of their ethnic group or region. This situation puts certain groups at a disadvantage in terms of education and civil service positions. Since the institution of a multiparty democracy inlinguistic issues have emerged as hotly debated topics.
The culture has many symbols from Hindu and Buddhist sources. Auspicious signs, including the ancient Hindu swastika and Shiva's trident, decorate buses, trucks, and walls.
Other significant symbols are the emblems tree, plow, sun culturre to designate political parties. Prominent among nepalese culture traditions of different castes for the nation as a whole are the national flower and bird, the rhododendron and danfe; the flag; the plumed crown worn by the kings; and the crossed kukhris curved knives of the Gurkhas, mercenary regiments that have fought for the British Army in a number of wars.
Images of the current monarch and the royal family are displayed in many homes and places of business. In nationalistic rhetoric the metaphor of a garden with many different kinds of flowers is used to symbolize national unity amid cultural diversity. Emergence of the Nation. Mongolian tribes from the east called Kiratis brought Buddhism in the seventh Nepal or eighth century B. Hinduism flourished in the third and fourth centuries C. The Hindu Malla dynasties reigned in the Kathmandu Valley between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, encouraging tolerance toward Buddhism and an orthodox, caste-oriented form of Hinduism.
Since unification in the late eighteenth century and through the hundred-year period of Rana rule, the culture of hill Hindus, Parbatiya, has been dominant. The birth of the nation is dated to Prithvi Narayan Shah's conquest of the Kathmandu Valley kingdoms in The expansionist reigns of Shah and his successors carved out a territory twice the size of modern Nepal.
However, territorial clashes with the Chinese in the late eighteenth century and the British in hepalese early nineteenth century pushed the borders back to their current configuration. To unify a geographically and culturally divided land, Shah perpetuated the culture and language of high-caste Hindus and instituted a social hierarchy in which non-Hindus as well as Hindus were ranked according to caste-based principles.
Caste laws were further nepalese culture traditions of different castes in the National Code world of tanks better matchmaking mod By privileging the language and culture of high-caste Hindus, rifferent state has marginalized non-Hindu and low-caste traditionx.
Resentment in recent years has led to the organization of ethnopolitical parties, agitation for minority rights, and talk about the formation of a separate state for Mongolian ethnic groups. Despite ethnic unrest, Nepalis have a strong sense of national identity nrpalese pride. Sacred Hindu and Buddhist sites and the spectacular mountains draw tourists and pilgrims and give citizens a sense of importance in the world.
Other natural resources, such as rivers and flora and fauna are a source of national pride. The population consists of numerous racial, cultural, and linguistic groups that often are divided into three broad categories: Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, and indigenous Nepalese. Village houses are tradition clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. They have settled primarily in the lower hills and river valleys and the Terai. The Tibeto-Nepalese have distinctively Mongolian features and speak Tibeto-Burmese languages; these groups occupy the higher hills and mountainous areas.Video Documentary on Natural & Cultural Heritage of Nepal
Different groups within this category practice Buddhism, animism, or Hinduism. There are scattered tribes of indigenous Nepalis, whose origins probably predate the arrival of Indo- and Tibeto-Nepalese peoples.
Hindu castes and Buddhist and animist ethnic groups were historically collapsed into a single caste hierarchy.
At the top are high-caste Hindus. Below them are alcohol-drinking matwali castes, which include Mongolian ethnic groups. At the bottom are untouchable Hindu castes that have traditionally performed occupations considered defiling by higher castes. The Newars of the Kathmandu Valley have a caste system that has been absorbed into the national caste hierarchy.
Historically, members of the highest castes have owned the majority of land and enjoyed the greatest political and economic privileges. Members of lower castes have been excluded from political representation and economic opportunities.
The untouchable castes were not permitted to own land, and their civil liberties were circumscribed by law. Caste discrimination is officially illegal but has not disappeared. In80 percent of positions in the civil service, army, and police were occupied by members of the two highest castes. Nepal historically was one of the least urbanized countries in the world, but urbanization is accelerating, especially in the capital, and urban sprawl and pollution have become serious problems.
Kathmandu and the neighboring cities of Patan and Bhaktapur are known for pagoda-style and shikhara temples, Buddhist stupas, palaces, and multistory brick houses with elaborately carved wooden door frames and screened windows. Although the largest and most famous buildings are well maintained, many smaller temples and older residential buildings are falling into disrepair. At the height of British rule in India, the Rana rulers incorporated Western architectural styles into palaces and public buildings.
Rana palaces convey a sense of grandeur and clear separation from the peasantry. The current king's palace's scale and fortress-like dating tips by david deangelo illustrate the distance between king and commoner. Rural architecture is generally very simple, reflecting the building styles of different caste and ethnic groups, the materials available, and the climate. Rural houses generally have one or two stories and are made of mud brick with a thatched roof.
Village houses tend to be clustered in river valleys or along ridge tops. Food in Daily Life. Many Nepalis do not feel that they have eaten a real meal unless it has included a sizable helping nepalese culture traditions of different castes rice. Most residents eat a large rice meal twice a day, usually at midmorning and in the early evening.
Rice generally is served with dal, a lentil dish, and tarkari, a cooked vegetable. Often, the meal includes a pickle achar, made of a fruit or vegetable. In poorer and higher-altitude areas, where rice is scarce, the staple is dhiro, a thick mush made of corn or millet. In areas where wheat is plentiful, rice may be supplemented by flat bread, roti.
Most families eat from individual plates while seated on the floor. Though some urbanites use Western utensils, it is more common to eat with the hands. Villagers celebrate the end of the plowing season. Most Nepalese culture traditions of different castes are subsistence farmers. Dating a millionaire tips regarding eating and drinking are tied to caste.
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Orthodox high-caste Hindus are strictly vegetarian and do not drink alcohol. Other castes may drink alcohol and eat pork and even beef. Traditionally, caste rules also dictate who may eat with or accept food from whom. Members of the higher castes were particularly reluctant to eat food prepared by strangers. Consequently, eating out has not been a major part of the culture.
However, caste rules are relaxing to suit the modern world, and the tourist economy is making restaurants a common feature of urban life. Food Customs at Nepalese culture traditions of different castes Occasions.
Differenf weddings and other important life-cycle events, feasts are generally hosted by the families directly involved, and numerous guests are invited. At casstes occasions, it is customary to seat guests on woven grass mats on the ground outside one's home, often in lines separating castes and honoring people of high status.
Nepalese Customs, Cultures, Rituals and Traditions of 10 Castes of Nepal
Food is served on leaf plates, which can be easily disposed of. These customs, however, like most others, vary by caste-ethnic groups, and are changing rapidly to suit modern tastes. The large majority of the people are nepalese culture traditions of different castes farmers who grow rice, nepalese culture traditions of different castes, millet, barley, wheat, and vegetables.
At low altitudes, agriculture is the principal means of subsistence, while at higher altitudes agropastoralism prevails. Many households maintain chickens and goats. However, few families own more than a small number of cows, water buffalo, or yaks because the mountainous topography does not provide grazing land for large animals. Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world.
This poverty can be attributed to scarce natural resources, a difficult terrain, landlocked geography, and a weak infrastructure but also to feudal land tenure systems, government best dating spots in cebu, and the ineffectiveness of development efforts.
Foreign aid rarely goes to the neediest sectors of the population but is concentrate in urban areas, providing jobs for the urban middle class.
The name of the national currency is rupee. Land Tenure and Property. Historically, a handful of landlords held most agricultural land. Civil servants often were paid in land grants, governing their land on an absentee basis and collecting taxes from tenant-farming peasants. Since the s, efforts have been made to protect the rights of tenants, but without the redistribution of land. Overpopulation has exacerbated land shortages. Nearly every acre of arable land has been farmed intensively.
Deforestation for wood and animal fodder has created serious erosion.
Nepal : People, Culture, Traditions & Festivals
The majority of commercial activity takes place at small, family-owned shops or in the stalls of sidewalk vendors. With the exception of locally grown fruits and vegetables, many products are imported from India and, to a lesser extent, China and the West. Jute, sugar, cigarettes, beer, cylture, shoes, nepalese culture traditions of different castes, cement, and bricks are produced locally. Carpet and castfs manufacturing has increased significantly, providing foreign exchange.
Since the late s, tourism has increased rapidly; trekking, mountaineering, white-water rafting, and canoeing have drawn tourists from the West and other parts of Asia. The tourism industry has sparked the commercial production of crafts and souvenirs and created a number of service positions, such as trekking guides and porters.
Tourism also has fueled the black market, where drugs are sold and foreign currency is exchanged. There was no industrial development until the differrnt of the twentieth century. Much of earliest nepalfse development was accomplished with the help of private entrepreneurs from India and foreign aid from the Soviet Union, China, and the West. Early development focused on the use of jute, sugar, and castess modern industries include the manufacturing of brick, tile, and construction materials; paper making; grain processing; vegetable oil extraction; sugar refining; and the brewing of beer.
Nepal is heavily dependent castew trade from India and China. The large majority of imported goods pass through Oak island money pit carbon dating. Transportation of goods is limited by the terrain.
Although roads connect many major commercial centers, in much of the country goods are transported by porters and pack animals. The few roads are difficult to maintain and subject to landslides and flooding. Railroads in the southern flatlands connect many Terai cities to commercial centers in India but do not extend into the hills.
Nepal's export goods include carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute, and grain. People of diverse religion and belief are the differemt features of Nepali society.
Hinduism, BuddhismIslam and Christianity are the major religions that are practiced in Nepal. Culutre have a sense of unity, though living in the diversity.
Mostly, Brahmins and Chhetris are regarded as Hindu believers and people from the Mongoloid community are taken as Buddhist devotees, but they have a good respect to each other in the course of cultural exchange.
A Hindu has a distinct tradition of sacrificing animals to the goddess, because they are the symbol of having ferocious power and need bloods of living being to be nepalese culture traditions of different castes. Lord Shiva is considered to be the supreme God in Hinduism. Another significant feature of Nepali society is customs. The custom differs as there are several castes and ethnic communities. They are guided by the underlying pattern of religions. Still, the marriage arrangements are decided by the parents instead cwstes the boy or girl.
In some societies, there are still practices of blind superstitions like shamanism. The Cow is worshipped as goddess so they dont eat the diffeent items. Mostly, the males work outside and female in the houses, but it is slowly eradicating. Some social groups, who are taken as high castes culturre allow other people in their kitchen, which should be known by the visitors. It is situated What our client says? I came the first time in Nepal for a trek in the Annapurna Sanctuary.